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TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS IN CENTRAL ASIA: PAST AND PRESENT /the example of Kazakhstan/* Dr. Mukanova Gyulnar, Al-Faraby KazNU, Almaty

jurfak Қазан 12, 2013 0
TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS IN CENTRAL ASIA: PAST AND PRESENT /the example of Kazakhstan/*  Dr. Mukanova Gyulnar,  Al-Faraby KazNU, Almaty



Abstract. The paper analyzes the issues of concern historically make up the nature of contemporary conflicts in the Central African Republic, as well as factors of their permit. Work carried out on the basis of summarizing the materials of open publications and archival sources. It focuses on the role of science and spirituality in the forward-looking applied research.

In fact, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting rift regional infrastructure were rated political scientists and economists. While the theme of ethnic identity (national concept) is still unattractive to local scientists. False fear of undermining the professional reputation limits the possibility of dialogue with foreign research centers. Kazakhstan poorly researched “inside” in the designated term, due to the long dogma of class theory. Meanwhile, the field of activity is extensive: the growing weight of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the world commits to anticipate conflicts. The experience of the past (cf. epic, “Alash”, publicism  of S.Sadvokasov) compares well with the needs of modern statism.

Foreign bibliography threads of different genres, the geography of UNESCO is a branched network. Discourse analysis on a sample of both developed and third world countries, aimed at finding a constructive mechanism for transforming potential conflicts and reconciliation of the parties.
The strategic mission of the Central African Republic in the international scenario defines intensification of scientific forecasting. “Visible” transformation in Kazakh society, in addition to the delimitation of borders and economic infrastructure: linguistic (change of priorities: native Kazakh – Russian language area – again national – English, in the long term Chinese /? /), Legal (common law, the court biys – Imperial , the jury – Soviet justice – national and state law). What to spirituality, then: strong emission energy (“Zheltoksan-86”), illumination / passionarnost / (“we – the Kazakhs”, “we – the Turks,” “we – the Muslims”).

Globalization – man-made, and therefore adjustable smart process. To prevent deformation of a professional image, a community in the face of scientists and policy makers should be integrated, while actualizing the ethno-cultural values. In the future, we can expect Renaissance CAR, and own word definitely say science Ulema.

Keywords: history, ethnicity, identity, image, Kazakhs, Central African Republic, Kazakhstan, conflict transformation, Turks, Islam, the national idea and the nationals shezhire, archeografic sources, S.Sadvokasov, N.Masanov, UNESCO.






“Central Asia – is not only the mujahedeen …”


“Diplomacy is the art of harnessing the power,” argued
Henry Kissinger. Covering eyes open spaces, the diversity of the ethnic map of Central Asia, you realize that the application of its unique history of the term “conflict” in the description of the transformation processes, it would be insufficient. The conceptual apparatus of the problem is broader because it is important to convey the nuances of the socio-cultural palette, in the context of tape time. Accordingly, we can use such definitions as “confrontation”, “conflict-prone”, etc. These terms are intended to reflect the degree of intensity of a particular situation, its geographical location, character actors (participants), their motivation and the reason for the confrontation. Shades of vocabulary essential for an authentic transmission of multiple layers of society and manifestations, past and present, its components, such as nations, social groups, political parties, etc.

For example, the essence of the term “conflict” as applied to the CAR can be interpreted in two ways, at least. A broad interpretation of the regional situation or event as a “conflict” is true only if we are talking about one-time or long-term interests of collisions that could lead to international tensions.
In the scientific literature as the “conflict” may be understood and more narrow in scope, geographically localized, compact clash of interests of the parties, objectively have a devastating force.

Accordingly, a classification of conflicts: the degree of depth, historical determinism, predictability and controllability of the consequences, etc. This is useful in practical aspects needed for establishing preventive activities of international organizations, government agencies and NGOs.
Typically, social conflicts are not suddenly appear, they have a latent (hidden) period. Subspecies conflicts should designate different nature of confrontation, which in turn can have a sustained, long-term and, to a certain extent, unregulated nature (eg, ordinary chauvinism).

Further, regional confrontation and conflicts are classified into endo-and exo-metric, i.e. the internal and external with respect to the boundaries of Central Asia. According to the content or case-filling, the conflicts are distinguishable, as domestic and economic, ideological, cross-cultural, including interfaith, etc.
Typology of conflicts addressed in a number of scientific developments of foreign and domestic, mostly – the post-Soviet and schools. [1] The positive aspect of research is a departure from the one-sided ideological orientation of Humanities and the emphasis on tolerance.

The probability of detecting variants of reconciliation in a conflict situation priori more reasonable than the model search for “the enemy” and the escalation of the conflict.

The strategic mission of the Central Asian Republics (hereinafter – CAR) in the international scenario is very significant that defines the actualization of scientific prediction of potential conflicts. Any prediction is based on the synthesis and comparative analysis. The role of science and spirituality in applied research and forecast underestimated.

In fact, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting rift regional infrastructure as a whole were rated political scientists and economists. Foreign historiography is currently dependent on political requests. CAR – a unique socio-cultural niche. To make up for her authentic performance, it is necessary to live here for a long time. Modern mainland Europe on the CAR has a vague idea, while integrative attempts there, very similar centrifugal aspirations here. European academic science and political scientists may affect the promotion of socio-cultural research plan.

In the New World (USA) interest in Central Asia everlasting, but it comes down to the movement of goods, i.e. mercantile. Americans “discovered” the CAR to the mid-twentieth century. Initial reaction from the delights of: landscapes, exotic, mentality, applied to 21. in shock. Americans are afraid of terrorism, the Afghan refugees, arms trafficking, “the bomb”, etc. This greatly confuses the assessment in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (Synonym of danger – “Stan”?).
East Asia (China) tied to its northwestern territories. Kazakhstan interested in Xinjiang, but further inland is not going to go. Perhaps China is not interested in a large-scale study of the Central African Republic, fearing encroachments akin to a “world revolution.”

Stable classical Orientalism of the United Kingdom, which had in the CAR trade and economic interests in the past. The region studied English at the same time with an addiction (intelligence). To be objective when meeting with the CAR and Kazakhstan, one has to study the publication of analysts from the Thames. They raised the problem of water scarcity, the valley of Zarafshan, around Afghanistan, etc. [2]

To be honest, the topic of ethnic identity (national concept), by CAR, more unattractive for local Kazakh scientists. One factor is the fear of undermining professional reputation. Kazakhstan poorly researched “inside” in the designated term, due to the long dogma of class theory.

Meanwhile, the field of activity is extensive, growing weight of a global definitely commits predict conflicts and in the field. The experience of the past, as reflected in the epic of “Alash”, journalism A.Bukeyhanov, M.Dulatov, S.Sadvokasov comparable with the needs of modern statism.

“Visible” transformation in Kazakh society, in addition to the delimitation of borders and economic infrastructure that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union, it is the following. They are, for ease of reference, we represent schematically:

1) linguistic (change of priorities: native Kazakh – Russian language area – again national – English, in the long term Chinese /? /), 2) legal (common law, the court biys – Imperial, the jury – Soviet justice – national and state law) . As to 3) spirituality, they serve as an illustration of the specific facts and recorded trends in Kazakh society: strong emission long pent-up energy (“Zheltoksan-86”), self-actualization (“we – the Kazakhs”, “we – the Turks,” “we – Muslims “) and others.

Each, a point mentioned above, the phenomena deserves to make out cause-and-effect relationships and evolution, internal communication with the mentality, the level of demand in certain social strata. Finally, the choice modus Vivendi nomad was connected to an external influence, on the one hand, and the identity – the other. The behavior of nomads proved to flexible and evolved to a certain, conflict, at times – a critical moment.

The migration factor was significant share of Kazakh identity in conflict: the nomad was inherent in the behavior of disengagement from the area of ​​tension. This referred to a losing situation, when the resistance was absurd.

Stipulate at the outset that the written sources in Russian, Chinese, English and other languages ​​for the reconstruction of how the internal structure of the Kazakh migration and its ideological and spiritual fulfillment, at this point revealed a lot. Great work carried out by members of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Republic of Kazakhstan, under the leadership of Professor M.H.Abuseitova. [3]

Analogies “Kosh” (Turkic. – a “movement”, “migrations”, “migration”) can be detected in oral istoriologiya of CAR, in the ancient and medieval layers. This article is an attempt to trace the forced mass displacement particular ethnic group in the regional scenario, only the last three centuries.

Looking ahead, we note an interesting pattern: the vast migrations of sudden disaster (not to be confused with the planned seasonal migrations!), Kazakhs or out of the conflict zone, or – were sent to resolve the conflict. Thus, the likelihood that within the CAR, Kazakhs were themselves cause conflict is close to zero.

Schematically, the algorithm behavior can be passed as the steppe: the conflict – migration – the conflict (Hiking Khan Kenesary to Kokand and Tashkent after the murder of his father Kasim and brother Sarzhan). Or this: conflict – migration (emigration Kazakhs in 1916, in the 20’s and 30’s. Twentieth century.). In the latter two cases, the Kazakhs have chosen the outcome beyond alma mater, which is unprecedented for a nomadic identity. [4] This feature allows you to identify a priori the conflicts of the twentieth century. Caused by overcrowding and reforms as irreversible for the traditional nomadic way of life.

From a philosophical point of view, the outcome of the situation of the inhabitants of the CAR, Kazakhs, beyond it, can be interpreted as a kind of expression of protest. There has been a transformation of the conflict into motion, seeking new opportunities.

Paradoxically, in this lies the sacredness, the ascending motion in the absolute. Motion as a forerunner in the adoption and upgrade the traditional formula of being nomads, and other ethnic and cultural forms. However, this raises an epistemological question: why Kazakhs are strictly adhered to for centuries, seemingly prying eyes amorphous boundaries of their nomads, identified them as the integrity of the state (“el”)?

That kept the Kazakhs of irreversible migration to adjacent areas? Why has remained virtually unchanged, and the configuration of the internal borders of three Kazakh zhuzes? What factors influence the formation of a stable identity? What is the role of the Institute of elders, biys all those who updated the line of kinship in the male line? Why not living on the fertile land plots, some Kazakh labor did not try to replace them with others by squatters? Where a strong tribal identity, motivation, “ata-baba jer?”

In the Kazakh customary law designated institute “barymta” (raids, accompanied by thefts of cattle from neighboring genera), and provide for penalties for this offense.

Popular opinion, “adat” categorically condemned the intention is to leave their ancestral lands, which is fixed in a sort of “mantra”: “Jat elde Sultan bolgansha, oz elinde Ultan bol” and others. They have been indoctrinated young people from an early age socialization.

Thus, mentality pawned attachment to a specific spatial coordinates. Kazakh socio-economic structure was chaotic conglomerate. Within the ethnic group is not a priori allowed unmotivated crossing boundaries, delimiting land of neighboring tribes, “Juz”.

And here we have to stop on the original instrument of socio-cultural conflict resolution in the historical past of the Kazakhs. Were prevalent domestic disputes over land issues dowry, marriage in the marginal zone of mixed marriages, inheritances, taxes, etc. To solve fairly complicated issues are often at the boundaries of birth (state, both on the eastern border of the Kazakh lands with Xinjiang, north-western province of the Qing Empire) going to the so-called “international conventions”. Their members delegated powers of ordinary Kazakhs, in order to express a particular position.

The rationality of this method of nomads in the resolution of social conflicts was observed by representatives of the Russian colonial administration, the consuls in Xinjiang.

Later negotiating processes on the relationship of the peoples CAR, at the beginning of the twentieth century, also tended to have analyzed above, the democratic form of international conventions.

The Congress of Scientists of the system of education in the Kazakh capital of autonomy in Orenburg in June 1924 – “white spot” of the regional history. [5] In fact, the motivation for the organization and holding of the congress was to consolidate in the community priority signs of identity (territory, language, culture).

The idea of the Congress of scientists belonged Alash leaders, and formally came from the Scientific and Literary Council, the Academic Center (are accentuated) at the People’s Commissariat of Education. Motive – the need to build up the work are accentuated. This was Commissar of Education Zaliev reported at a meeting in Regional Party Committee April 30, 1924.

12-17 June 1924 in Orenburg, a congress of the Kazakh educators. On the agenda were the (!) Questions of national identity. [6] Congress passed unnoticed in the historiography, while it was an exceptional event. Despite the fact that the exit has been approved, information on it negligible.

Invitations were: from the Moscow East Central Publishing – N.Tyuryakulov, A.Bukeyhanov; Bukhara Kazakhs – Mirza Naurzbaev; Turkestan – Ishangali Arabaev, Halel Dosmukhamedov; Kazobkom – Aspandiyar Kenzhin; Kazsektsija of Trade Unions – Mukhtar Samatov; Kazinstitute – Mukhtar Murzin, Kazakh Central Executive Committee – Eldes Omarov, Nurtaza Irash; Narcompros – Ahmet Baitursynov, Nugman Zaliev, M. Zholdybaev; Society for the Study of Kazakhstan – Dulatov. [7]

Report by H. Dosmukhamedov to update any work on ethno-historical collection of materials and aimed a subsequent edition for serious work. The opinion expressed A.Baytursynov. In his speech, spoke of N.Tyuryakulov archeographic expeditions of “aul” pupils and teachers. The chairman of the Congress of A. Bukeikhanov said: “When the collected knowledge about the life of Kazakhs, you need to take examples from Europe, not all horses are cross-country and amblers.” [8] The meaning of the comments was this: “Will the man who more or less interested in their work. Such a person, having collected the necessary knowledge to use and can transmit it to others.”

The Congress has decided to target the redistribution of budget funds Narcompros KASSR, to encourage “collectors” and the publication of books.
Dulatov Mirzhakyp made ​​a report “On the education of the remaining outside Kazrepublic  and Turkestan” by focusing on the Congress of the additional issue of books and textbooks in Kazakh.

Attention to the Kazakh diaspora abroad proves the scientific character of the Congress and its strategic level. How to organize a methodological work in schools on the territory of Russia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and China? [9] Dulatov explained the lack of authority of the Congress to work with the far abroad. Issues of transition to the Latin alphabet. [10]

In short, there was a rich discourse on the issues that took a methodological nature. Unconditional research intensity of the Congress: discuss the problem of formation of scientific terminology, the formation of archaeographic expeditions to collect folklore, publication of educational literature, etc. Was it implemented the resolution of the Congress, in its publication of the material in the form of collections – until we found no data.

Formally, the Congress is close to the era of Soviet Bolshevism. His organization echoes the House of Commons in England and the U.S. Congress. The democratic ‘steppe’ Forum in the historical parallels, they were the forerunners of modern forms of government and self-independent Kazakhstan.

Introduction into scientific facts elective congresses, as the will of the majority of Kazakhs’ positions warranted for benchmarking Institute migratory habits congresses at all.

The place and role of collegiality in the mentality of the Kazakhs. In the Middle Ages, the election of the khans and movement strategies implemented by the Institute of representation. Historically, the court biys – a form of delegation of functions (the court) to certain categories of people.

At the congress of scientists were invited to the party and government departments, commissariats part of the Alash leaders. The principle was to participate in the congress Alikhan Bukeikhanov. His biographers overlooked this fact, while all of his departure from Moscow, where he had been under secret house arrest – calling the Bolsheviks. Bukeikhanov had by then worked in the Commissariat a managerial position in Kazrepresentation in Moscow, East publishing was aware of the state of the national school, the first universities and the media. We must pay tribute to his personal courage, he risked being arrested for unauthorized decision.

In the available materials and interrogation of arrested Alash leaders and Communists until we met the mention of this event. NKVD investigators, apparently, did not attach much importance to the event because it had an official permit.

In the intellectual history of the CAR of the first third of the twentieth century. the first scientific congress of the Kazakh educators in 1924 stands out. The forum was part of an experimental platform in the political prediction: the impact of its policy decisions on the national consciousness had to be enormous. In those years, the People’s Commissariat spent planning congresses teachers, but this was intended to examine crucial issues. He convened irrespective of the political preferences of the participants, for the development of a common strategy for the development of the nation. In fact, Congress has laid a strong scientific methodology under the national model of education and training.

Communists and Alash leaders find common ground – ethnicity (Kazakh), showed tact, common sense. In fact, there has been a bipartisan representation in Congress, which secured a compromise. Contrary to the allegations of the NKVD and the CPSU (b), an alliance of the Bolsheviks and Alash leaders was fruitful in the sense of developing advanced solutions for the region.
Soviet ideological machine cut off any attempt independence as illegitimate. The priorities in the national question in the Soviet Union were brought to the Administration Center. Stalin’s policy on the national question hit by a ricochet leaders autonomies. [11]

Among the victims of political repression in Kazakhstan managerial echelon enough to call a charismatic leader Smagul Sadvokasov. Commissar of Education, Chairman of the State Planning Commission of the Republic, before the end of defending identity, in the sense of identity, Kazakhstan.
Typology of conflicts in the Central African Republic on the historical material – the basis for the analysis of current issues of concern. Typical factors: man-made, man. Ideological conflicts variations – anti-Islamic. “Phantom 11” hysteria provoked an information image of the “enemy.” Manipulation of public consciousness – not an innovation.

Examples from the history of the CAR. Political provocation, the nineteenth century.: The killing of Kasim and Sarzhan – retaliatory campaign Kenesary; twentieth century.: Conflict in oz.Alakol – the deterioration of relations between the USSR – China. The twenty-first century. – Arkan-Kergen outpost – a challenge to bilateral relations on the eve of the visit of the President of Kazakhstan to China. Social conflicts, combined with a “national” complex (Zhana-ozen – 2012).

Conflict transformation directly dependent on the media. The most memorable events of the last three years, “untwisted” media and “transform” the intervention of the administration: in 2011 – “Khorgos”, 2012 – Zhana-ozen, 2013 – ’cause their foreheads, “fall of the Russian” Proton “in Baikonur . Thus, all of them – resonant and fraught with socio cultural imbalance.

Factors to resolve conflicts in the CAR – expert analysis, discourse, multilateral and multi-stage negotiations, the weighted analysis. As to the confrontations, permanent, designed for a long period of clarification in the media, on the basis of scientific tabs. Attracting competent expert opinion, and not just overseas.

It is also important to form a positive experience of conflict resolution. Form Kazakh scientific congresses, as a way to build consensus – an interesting topic.
Congresses of the People’s Commissariat of scientists first third of the 20th century. carried a special mission settlement socio cultural roughness.

Ethno-cultural study of Kazakhstan began with the acquisition of Autonomy (1920). Thus, the curriculum edge short courses for retraining of teachers in the Orenburg SovPartSchool for 1924 -1925 years. included among compulsory: “The history of the Kazakh people in connection with ethnography” – 30 hours. [12] “The Kazakh language teaching and methodology” – 36 hours.

From 1 January 1924 to plan the transition office in Kazakh. In June 1924 in Orenburg, the First Congress of People’s Commissariat of Scientific Kazakh workers! Forum has moved beyond the national and international status had / Khiva, Khorezm, Altai, Mongolia, China, Russia /.

The participants were placed conceptual field of the study of ethnography, draw up an inventory of scientific terminology, changing the alphabet, the publication of textbooks. Alash leaders contribution to the ethnography and anthropology of the CAR should be studied. Only in 2006 (!) In the Independent Kazakhstan, the First Congress of the Union of Scientists, as the successor to the historic Forum 1924.

Method for studying traditional conflicts: a comparative analysis, classification: core conflicts, vertical and horizontal across the Central African Republic. General and specific. The emphasis on identity and predicting behavior patterns of the population.

Kazakh and common Türkic concept of “El” (Kozhabergen Zhyrau, 18 c., The poem “Elim-ai”, Gumar Carash, the beginning of the XXth century. “Elim, Sagan ne bolgan?”). The national “identity code” is interesting as an object of study. [13]

In the future, we can expect the CAR of the Renaissance, and his word, of course, say scientific Ulema. Globalization as a process of “not so terrible as he is painted.” The hypothetical promise of a clash of civilizations was not confirmed in reality. With the collapse of the USSR, in CAR market relations, the cult of private property, established in Eastern societies path Silk Road since ancient times, but cornered teaching Communists came to freedom, like genie of Aladdin’s lamp.

What is the nature of modern and experts predict the inevitable conflicts in the societies of the Central Asian Republics? There are several good reasons for concern, namely: 1) hydro CAR and international economic issues of their distribution [14], and 2) national identity and foreign policy repercussions.

Certainly, it is necessary to foresee the possible situation of water scarcity. Illustration of the role of water in the livelihood is clearly marked in the Kazakh folklore. In it the names of rivers particular melody sung: Ak-Zhaiyk, Edil, Syr Darya, Ishim, Irtysh, Ili, Shu, etc. Border River and the Caspian Sea are now pressing problem distinguishing and balancing operation.

National security revealing an example of the notorious “ethnic” issue, from time to time there is a border, north-western, northern and north-eastern regions of Kazakhstan.

Developing scientific prediction, in the post-Soviet space, it is important to update the research in the field of social and humanities. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting fracture assessment of regional infrastructure receive ecologists, hydrologists, farmers and politicians. At the same time, the problematic issues of national identity (national concept) is weakly attracted scientists. The reason is probably in fear of undermining professional image.

Kazakh mentality is reflected in the oral istoriology: folklore, legends, “shezhire”. It authentically reflects the transformation of social conflicts (hereinafter – CC): the struggle for pasture, water sources, wells [15] with neighboring ethnic groups (see Kazakh epic eighteenth century., Bukhara-bard) confrontation with the colonization of the north and the violation of the territorial integrity south (the epic of the ХIХth century. “Kenesary-Nauryzbai” Makhambet).

Soviet stage, the alphabet reform, resistance substitution of political cliches ethnicity and interests of the nation (see journalism Alash, the Kazakh “Soviet” Romance studies of the twentieth century., Where Aesopian language – of “asphyxia media”).

CAR is experiencing a number of visible transformations. In addition to the delimitation of borders and economic infrastructure, the following:

– Linguistic (the change of priority: native languages ​​- Russification – National, English, perhaps – Chinese);

– Law (customary law, the court of “biys” – Imperial, the jury – Soviet justice – national and state law).

As for spirituality, there were powerful emissions of long clamped energy (“Zheltoksan-86”), self-actualization (“we – the Kazakhs”, “we – the Turks,” “we – the Muslims”), etc. The items listed are the result of “volte-face” in the identification of: ethnicity – social class identification – the titular nation. In Kazakhstan, the multicultural composition of the population, which is “embedded” in the state structure, under the auspices of the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan.

Without exception, all the listed transformation of conflict-hypothetically. The era of limitless power of media resources in the ХХI century. and the unpredictability of the human factor does not guarantee cloudless existence.

In the Kazakh folklore rogue Aldar-Kose – the character with the mission of the winner in social conflict, and he easily transform conflict in humor joke. Violation of the invisible balance in the East leads to a breakdown of the potential transaction. The method provides a permanent concessions grateful client with stable self-esteem. A “balancer” and moved to the area of foreign policy nomads. A typical example: the contacts of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Their amplitude is uneven, however, is a regional fixed axis – vertical North-South cooperation.

Dynamics of identity and ethnicity in the Central African Republic in the eighteenth century – the ХХth century. In Kazakhstan with retrievable from folklore by the Archeological sources and archival materials 20-30-years ХХth century. The comparative analysis, sociological field observations meet scientific approach to identity.

From the height of the current level of science, summarizing studied an array of materials available, it can be argued that the burden of the conflict in the spiritual realm of the Kazakh region fell to the share of the national intelligentsia. In 1919, the party “Alash” made ​​a difficult decision: to self-destruct, to continue the struggle to recognize the victory power and the party. Leaders were able to transform the Alash ripen political conflict into cooperation. Alash liders relied on the mentality as a factor in the sublimation of the collective energy to the building.

Logistics-through method: Kazakh congresses “zhiyn” as a tool for solving social problems, are known from the Late Middle Ages. In folklore – the era Tauke the eighteenth century. “Kultobenin basynda Kunde zhiyn.” In the nineteenth century. Russian consuls in Xinjiang and Chinese border authorities qualified the congresses of the Kazakhs as “international.” Then met at the appointed place on the Kazakh border on both sides of the border and decided litigation was involved biy court. Finally, in the ХХ century Alash liders used wisely Regional Congress of Educators to discuss strategic issues (the alphabet, textbooks, foreign Kazakhs and others).

In fact, under the form of the Congress of Educators, held a republican forum of delegates who have taken upon themselves the responsibility for systematic work in the field of education and ideology.

Those present were the two parties – the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and Alash (in history), it was the forerunner of the modern parliamentary system. History remembers Eurasia congresses of other Turkic peoples, such as Baku Congress in 1926 in the era of the Bolshevik totalitarianism, this form is passing away, substituting authoritarianism and team administration.

In exile, Mustafa Shokai drawn attention to the need for advocacy, as Commissar of Education Kazkray, communist Smagul Sadvokasov predicted improvement in the articles of the republic, “Қazaқstandy қalay құrғan zhөn” [16] Here is an example of patriotism beyond party affiliation.

Foreign bibliography of different genres and themes of geography, the UNESCO Chair logically represent an extensive network in Eurasia. The nature of the conflict has been studied in both the developed and third world countries. The focus of research projects to find a constructive mechanism, the smooth transfer of potential conflicts in a peaceful course – a problem dictated by the realities of international relations.

“Between the Kuomintang and Kemalism” – the geopolitical orientation, within which is the problem of preserving the national diaspora (Kazakh) identity in the twentieth century. The process of the outcome of the Kazakhs from the Soviet Union in the Central and South Asia, to Europe, through the twentieth century – a challenge (challenge) the strength of ethnicity. [17]

The originality of the study is to identify the direct and indirect written evidence of preservation of identity in exile. Novelty – a critical discourse analysis on the methodology of conservation of Kazakh ethnicity and identity in exile.

Violent settling of nomads and collectivization in the Soviet Union have resulted in an unprecedented protest movement and emigration of indigenous inhabitants. However, the assimilation of the Kazakhs as a whole does not, what we are led to the repatriation of so-called “repatriates” and modern information materials on the Kazakh diaspora.

The phenomenon of migration in multi-cultural societies in the context of the formation of the national idea of Kazakhstan revealed to the world the concept of “Kazakh Diaspora” and the neologism “repatriates”. Kazakhs during the trans-continental migration existed in the political field of a number of countries – a tough test, but the Diaspora gained flexibility with time. Kemalism Gaullism, communism with the prefix “neo” remain part of the political life in the diaspora Eurasia, it makes sense to explore the factors of evolution loyalty of immigrants in their countries of residence.

Despite the moral and material losses, Kazakhs abroad were stable in the face of trials. What is the strength of the knowledge of themselves as carriers of ethnicity? The answer – in the historical evidence, as the outcome of the Kazakhs of Central Asia to Europe. Globalization has made it possible to study foreign techniques and apply them to the domestic “stuff.” “Sovietologists” more interested in the loyalty of the Kazakhs to the local administration and the protests. The language barrier proved irresistible for them, leading to distortions of generic names, names, etc.

Poorly represented in the historiography of the topic of foreign influence on Kazakh workers. The process had resonance. Tarnished image of the “Soviet Union”, the negative public reaction to the transformation of the nomadic way of life, “kinks” observed the countries that took in the region of Central Asia’s strategic interests. This is – unknown pages of nationalities in the Union, for many years the theme of exile in the Soviet Union was banned. The rare information materials that have hit the pages of periodicals in the USSR and abroad, subject to obstruction, their authors are punished.

Almost without a leading foreign center, knowledge of languages ​​and basic rights of refugees, homeless and food, the family of the Kazakhs, immigrants have undergone a lot of tribulations before rooted in the countries of current residence. Paradoxically, the fact is that the vast majority of them are not only preserved their identity, but also serve as an example of ethnicity for the post-Soviet counterparts. Language, religion, customs and traditions (respect for elders, “shezhire”-pedigree somewhere “zhek-zhat”, etiquette, crafts, costumes and food, etc.), foreign Kazakh Eurasian identical to those that have been handed down by their ancestors to the alma mater.

Trying to isolate the communist Union migrants Kazakhs were about the same situation in China. Those who made ​​it to Europe, tested the effect of the post-war situation. Germany lost the war and Nazism almost gone from the political scene. On the contrary, the effect of Gaullist (France) was serious enough. France remembered Mustafa Shokai, a Kazakh. In Turkey, were strong anti-Stalinist and traditional Kemalism. These ideologies, if you look, – the cradle of the Kazakh Diaspora in Europe. They are reflected in the Diaspora – whether in social preferences, whether cultural.

“The phenomenon of migration in multi-ethnic societies: in the context of the formation of the national idea of the Republic of Kazakhstan” – a theme of grace in historical perspective. On the example of the Chinese and Russian archival sources from the foreign ministries of foreign funds XIX – XX centuries. Apparently was carried out smoothly as the local transformation of the border conflict. The point was a massive border crossing Kazakhs during the 1916 uprising in Russia at that time, Seven Rivers in Xinjiang. Through the efforts of the consuls, the provincial administration, the commissioners of the Interim Government to Turkestan issue has been successfully resolved. The focus has been taken the task of preserving the life and health of people, as well as the status quo on the border.

Under the influence of immigration, of course, there was a transformation of European societies and in fact, took a flood of refugees from countries of “socialism.” Social and cultural aspects of the naturalization of immigrants are of interest and through the prism of conflict resolution. The next step – to study and predict the behavior of immigrants in Kazakhstan as a potential part of the electorate.

In the twenty-first century. Conflicts like shape relationships are evolving, but they did not disappear as a phenomenon. Eastern societies, which traditionally include Central Asian, tend to pacify disputes. / Enough to illustrate this observation dome folk-epic heritage of “One Thousand and One Nights”, based on the life experiences of the peoples of the Middle East and Central Asia, in turn nourishes the prose and poetry of Europe /.

Where does this in such a case, the “al-Qaeda”? Obviously, we should not get involved in “tantra” complacency. Matrix Central Asia is a “plateau” associated with each other, on the principle of communicating vessels, the unique natural and historical areas. The joint economic development of the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Tajik, Uyghur and Dungan water of Syr Darya, the Aral Sea, Balkhash, Chu “cemented” the region invisible pins. Attempts to artificially taken shape over the centuries to break contact corridors are doomed to failure.

Specificity of internal conflict transformation is determined by ethno-cultural factors, including gender. The relative freedom of women in the labor Kazakhs and family hierarchy is due to a social mission.

Prevention of strain identity of the nation in Central Asia through the media is required. Content broadcasts and publications must necessarily contain: shezhire reconstruction, national values​​. Great attention should be paid to the training of qualified personnel of international journalists, branding activities of diplomatic missions. Common sense, spirituality and harmonizing relationships, as opposed to the market – a sure step towards the sustainable development of the CAR. Logical step – inclusion in the UNESCO heritage of the Kazakh Alash journalism.

“Globalization” has taken place before, in the Age of Discovery and the tank Gutenberg’s invention of the printing. Globalization – man-made and, therefore, regulated smart process. Central-Asian community, in order to avoid deviation of identity in the face of scientists and politicians, should accelerate the integration of spirituality and actualize ethno-cultural values.

It seems that in the near future we can expect a renaissance of Asia and its geographic center. As a “modem” to regulate contacts societies CAR, his word, of course, says science.

It seems that in the near future we can expect a renaissance of Asia and its geographic center. As a “modem” to regulate contacts societies CAR, his word, of course, says science.

Globalization – man-made, and therefore adjustable smart process. To prevent deformation of a professional image, a community in the face of scientists and policy makers should accelerate the integration, update the ethno-cultural values. Classic of Kazakh literature Gabit Musrepov on his deathbed dictated Mukhtar Shakhanov these lines: “If art and literature are drawn cardiogram soul of the nation, did not reach the highest perfection, and they do not recognize the other great, the nation would never be called great.” It is important today.


References and sources:

1 Bichsel Christine. Conflict Transformation in Central Asia: Irrigation disputes in the Ferghana Valley / / Taylor & Francis, 2008; Thomas Bernauer, Tobias Siegfried. Climate change and international water conflict in Central Asia / /; Naumkin V.V. Central Asia and Transcaucasia: Ethnicity and Conflict, Westport: Greenwood, 1994 (editor and co-author); Political conflicts: from violence to an agreement. M., 1996.

2 Megoran Nik, Heathershaw John. Contesting Danger: A New Agenda for Policy and Scholarship on Central Asia / / International Affairs (London), May 2011, Vol. 87, No.3. P. 589-612 etc.

3 History of Kazakhstan in the Arabic sources. In the 3 volumes. – Almaty, “Dike-Press”, 2005-2006, History of Kazakhstan to the Chinese sources. In 5 volumes. Almaty: “Dyke Press”, 2005-2006, History of Kazakhstan in the Turkic sources. In 5 volumes. – Almaty, “Dike-Press”, 2005-2006; Abuseitova M.H., Abylhozhin J.B. The history of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Almaty: Dyke Press, – 2001. – 616. Abuseitova M.H. Kazakhstan and Central Asia in the XV – XVII centuries: History, politics, diplomacy. Edition 2, ext. – Almaty, “Dike-Press”, 2002. – 288. etc.

4 GK Mukanova The disengagement possessions of Russia and China in Central Asia: the ethno-political aspect, XIX – early. XX centuries. Reconstruction of the migration of nomads (avtorefrat). – M., 1995; her away. Central Asia through the prism of relations: Russia – Kazakhstan – China, XVIII – XX centuries “. – Petropavlovsk, 2001. – 557 p.; Her away. Migration of Kazakhs in Central Asia: a look back in time and attempt to forecast / / Bulletin of Eurasia, 1996 № 2-3. – PP. 64-73.

5 AP Republic of Kazakhstan (Almaty). F. 139. – Op. 1. – AD 727. Materials for newspapers. In 1923-1924.

6 Archive of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty (AP RK). F. 139. – Op. 1. – D. 727. Materials for newspapers. In 1923-1924.- PP. 96-112. 113-117.118-130. 131-139.

7 Ibid. – P.96-112.

8 Ibid. – P.132.

9 Ibid. – P. 137.

10 Ibid. – PP. 118-130.

11 Amanzholova D. Autonomism Kazakh and Russian. M., 1994, Her own. Kazakh autonomy: from the idea to the self-determination of the nationalities in the Soviet // Acta Slavica Iaponica. Tomus XXI, 2004. P. 123 – 134.

12 AP RK. F. 139. Op. 1. D. 1067. P. 37.

13 Kholiki A., N. Rakhimov Water – a source of conflict in Central Asia / /;

14 T. Sultanov nomadic tribes in the Aral Sea region XV-XVII centuries. Questions of ethnic and social history. M., 1982, TI Sultanov, Klyashtorny SG States and peoples of the Eurasian steppes. Antiquity and the Middle Ages. 3rd ed. – St. Petersburg., 2009; Jeti gasyr zharlaydy. – Almaty: “Zhazushy.” 2008. – Volume 1. – 400 p.

15 Massanov NE Kazakh nomadic civilization: the basics of life migratory habits of society. – Almaty: “Sotsinvest” – Moscow: “Horizon”, 1995. – 320 p.; Massanov N.E., Abylhozhin J.B. The history and culture of the peoples of Kazakhstan: Almaty: Dyke Press, – 2001. -608 p.

16 Sәduaқasұly S. Қazaқstandy қalay құrғan zhөn / / Kyzyl Kazakhstan. – 1924. – № 7. – P. 9-17; Mukanova G.K. Reading Smagul Sadvokasova. – A., “Kazakh University” in 2013. – 176 p.

17 The Kazaks of China. Essays on an Ethnic Minority. Ed. by L.Benson and I.Svanberg, Stockholm, 1988; Svanberg I. Kazak refugees in Turkey: A Study of cultural persistence a social change. – Uppsala, 1989; Benson L. The Ili Rebellion, The Moslem challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. – N.Y., 1990. Mukanova GK Central Asia and the problems of decolonization, the twentieth century. Anthology of intellectual history.”- LAP, 2013. – 175 p.


  • Статья представляет собой доклад автора на конференции ESCAS 7 августа 2013 г. в Назарбаев университете, г. Астана.




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